4.0 Methodology Explanation
This study will broadly elaborate on the previous three chapters that entailed the overall introduction of the research study, a literature review identifying several opinions, and structuring the methodology. This task will go on to explain the same and provide a comprehensive approach to gather data and shape the final research. This will include an explanation, analysis through statistical data, and personally reflect on the project.
4.2 Accessing the sample
The collection process involved engaging different respondents representing a wider demographic and responses recorded accordingly. These respondents from different demographic purview are related to the scope formed by the research model as implemented during the study. This research has considered the importance of individual responses for better integrating the relevant perspectives set around the human rights act in the country. The entire research will be based on such individuals who are either directly involved in improving the human rights initiatives of the country. These will include several public servants associated with numerous public bodies in and around the UK. It took the perspective of ordinary people like employees, labours, and volunteers and seek an outline of their contribution to improving the factors affecting human rights in the country. This is beyond the restrictions impacting this research. The researcher tried to include the prospective sampling model that also reflected a technical overview of the respondents affecting this research.
4.3 Processing the sample
This research took the responses of 29 respondents from a varied age group of 18-older and backgrounds in the country of the UK. A broader choice was made in profiling, shortlisting, and recording the opinions of a more comprehensive class of population representing a particular gender and occupation. The research reflected their transparent and honest advice for building on the study. This is essentially why they were presented with relevant questionings surrounding the human rights act in the country (Uemuraet al. 2017). These responses were grouped in different categories and were closely connected with the research question. The opinions tried to map a portion of the existing population, and their perceptions that arise while acting within the human rights act. This sample size was chosen due to the convenience of situational awareness among different college students, human rights workers, random labours, lawyers and others. It was easier to question the same individuals with different instances arising from the current situations in the country. That helped balance the research as a whole while processing the sample.
4.4 Primary data collection
As a medium of primary data collection instrument, a questionnaire was used for recording responses from the chosen people. This questionnaire included questions that impacted the research study in numerous findings and reflected the objectives of the research. The questions also tried to identify the demographic positioning by preparing questions pertaining to age, gender, place of work, and actual occupations (Etikan and Bala, 2017). This helped in narrowing down the responses as it was recorded from a population separated by different experiences. The questions also tried to highlight the ongoing pandemic condition pertaining to “Covid-19 or coronavirus” and established the importance of human rights stance among the respondents. Other questions took into consideration the articles and interpretations under the human rights act and personal reflections of people regarding improvements. Overall, the questions were shaped in the form of a liker’s scale that helped better in evaluating the responses in the research. The final questions also tried to record the opinions of respondents relative to the legislative regulations controlling the role of human rights in the country. [Referred to appendix 1]
4.5 Data Analysis
The distribution of questionnaires was conducted mainly through handouts in the form of questionnaire forms through hard copies. An explanation was also provided regarding its filling by enumerating the relevance of specific options detailing the relevant perceptions. These were followed by an explanation of allocated space for recording comments from respondents and further aiding in ticking around the relevant boxes. This made it convenient in not only creating a balance between detailed evaluation and multiple-choice framework but also focused on the demographic from ranges of human rights aspects linked to the research objective. The handouts generally depended on a direct communication approach that provided face-to-face meetings with the respondents. However, due to the “Covid-19” pandemic around 67% of the respondents were provided questionnaires through online mediums like email through a word document. This also allowed them to better record their responses while creating limitations in understanding to fill out the requirements. That made it relevant to conduct video conferences in permitting easier explanations, especially while going through the questionnaires.
4.6 Analysis of data approach
This approach allowed the culmination of total responses and application of statistical tools like illustrative diagrams and excel for explaining the same. The data collected was taken through correlation analysis that tried to identify the relationship of variables as it arose from questions revolving around the research objective (George and Mallery, 2016). The same data was also examined through a regression analysis while trying to identify the statistical significance of variables results. The analysis of data also made it easier to create pie chart representations allowing a better understanding of demographic perspectives taken from respondents. This was further balanced in the form of histograms which isolated the factor considerations related to the research question. This gave a better identification of responses arising from the elements surrounding the human rights act. The graphs were drawn up under MS Excel and compared to summarise a comprehensive analysis of the data in the process.
4.7 Relevant ethical issues around the research
The questions framed in the questionnaire was created after taking into consideration the comfortability aspect of respondents. This included avoiding sensitive topics related to globally labelled topics surrounding human rights, and level of confidentiality centring the individuals involved in the research. The research also tried to acknowledge the “Data protection act of 1998” that recognised the secured parameters around which to carry about information. The participants were provided questionnaires related to the research after assuring their acquiescence through consents. A separate consent form was prepared for the same provided to the respondents before approaching them for the research. This ensured authentic reporting after administering all the risks associated with ethical understandings in the research. The vulnerable participants were given time to take an overview of their conditions before participating in the research. The entire data was not warranted to disclosures as framed at the beginning of the study. [Referred to appendix 2]
This research has administered all the required basis in order to create a comprehensive approach. The primary research instrument, along with the sampling size, were formed, keeping in mind the scope of this research. Its broader classifications will be laid out in the latter sections Identifying the vastness of the subject. At the end of the study, the suggestion will be provided, addressing a few concerns, and a personal reflection will be undertaken.
Chapter 5: Findings
5.1 Evaluation of demographics requiring amendments in the human rights act
The research was based around a demographic that was represented by 59% male respondents, who wanted improvements in the human rights act, especially after the “Covid-19” pandemic. This was followed by a 31% women populace who reflected on the same perceptions and wanted minor changes in the “Right to life” under Article 2 of the act. This was attested by another 10% of other gender classes who sought to support the population in the endeavour. It was further seen through the age-wise breakdown that the view came from an age group ranging from 25-30 with a 31% majority. There were other categories of people representing a group that belonged to the age between 40-50, who expressed that their rights were secured under the human rights act of 1998. However, the minor generations, along with the older folk, seemed to be less concerned regarding their human rights. This was observable from the distribution through a pie chart. The occupations of these people were found to be 59% based in the UK territory, with most working in the city of London. While the other 41% were established in other countries or different territories in the same country. This provided the impression that London employees considered the human rights act as an important aspect of their lives. This outlines the fact that every type of individual existing in the country is born with an inherent right, that cannot be denied for a long duration by society (Hao et al. 2016). A certain half of employed and self-employed people of around 41% provided similar sentiments regarding their opinions on human rights. The rest percentage of people working in schools, training institutions, and other universities resulted in around 24%, who provided another different take on the “equality act of 2010.”with increased importance on responsibilities laid down by local authorities. The remaining half of people were distributed between non-working people with 21% and the student group with 14% respectively. These sections of people had the least idea regarding the human rights act or its stance towards improving their life.
5.2 Evaluation of factors identifying problems associated with the human rights act and its need for improvements
The current pandemic situation has increased the importance of human rights among the society. This is visible through the 12 people who agree that human rights are very well respected during the crisis. There are around 5-6 respondents who also consider that human rights can improve under the same situation. This is further attributed to their not well respected and very poorly respected responses. The majority populace among the respondents has raised concern towards the right to privacy being violated by government agencies. This is clear when around 42% of the respondents regarded that as their primary concerns (Hao et al. 2016). Apart from this, there were around 24% of respondents who felt that their right to speech was prevented during the “covid-19” crisis, through lack of internet activities. The rest 20% of people and 14% of people were about the social distancing norms in place after the pandemic, while the others were simply anxious about how government agencies were supervising operations during the timeline.
It is utmost important to notice that around 6 respondents still think that human rights initiatives could improve majorly under the “Covid-19” pandemic. This can be reflected through the “disability model of human rights” which respects medical considerations of individuals for upholding its fundamental dignity. During the pandemic situation, it will be important to notice that increased social distancing around individuals suffering from ailments, can be perceived as a violation of human rights. However, the same consideration is taken up by other 12 people as necessary in outlining the fundamental right that might be missing during the crisis (Wu and Leung, 2017). This establishes the difference of opinions among the respondents. The government agencies should therefore take proceedings into improving the overall rights of the people. Some rights have been identified and understood in the later questions that will provide a fresher picture during the pandemic.
The perception of the participants regarding the implications of human rights have expressed their view point’s which are critically linked with the concept of “Theory of natural rights”. The respondents have agreed with 42% of agreement that the right to privacy is something which deviates from the natural or common human rights. Assessing this factor in the light of the digital age the right to privacy becomes a more apparent factor which has not been expressed before. The natural rights model of understanding human freedom mentions certain boundaries which are needed to be respected by both individuals and social organisations. The responses accounts for an incessant struggle between the oversight and conformity which is made more apparent during the COVID 19 pandemic situation(Wu and Leung, 2017). 58% of the participants were most likely to be involved with the whole system of affirmation which might be seen as their exercise of free will which was often considered the epitome of human rights prior renaissance. On personal remarks the respondents have mentioned the importance and the lack of administrative oversight as they point to other non-pandemic situations which accounts for greater loss to human rights.
Chapter 6: Recommendation and Conclusion
This research mainly revolved around protecting human rights and how its preservation could impact the lives of the general masses. The researcher identified many research objectives as a process that revolved around the human rights act of 1998. These objectives wanted to identify the challenges and impact upon the same through improvements in the long run. The research study thus leads to the conclusion that most respondents taken as a sampling, considered human rights to be an integral part of a constitutional system. While some raised its importance during the “Covid-19” pandemic, the others thought it a fundamental obligation for the laws to adhere to the principles of human rights.
6.2 Evaluation of key findings
There were some who failed to see the importance of social distancing as a necessary duty during the pandemic. The other half of the respondents also summarised that it was only for the time being, and that later it would not be considered a necessity. This research also leads to the conclusion that human rights can be aligned with the regulations set by the European convention. That would allow many respondents to be heard in the long-run. This led to the conclusion that a portion of the respondents were willing to participate through voluntary duties. In aiding towards the shaping of authentic human rights in the country. The research, however, lacked better responses that could have been gathered if the “Covid-19” crisis was not abundant The research study finally arrived onto the conclusion that the majority half of the respondents believed in human development through the human rights act. This helped in outlining the concept with the research objective, which wanted to improve the human rights initiative in the country. The responses suggested that most people involved in the demographic wanted its improvements in the end.
This research study managed to outline the shortcomings and essential improvements arising from the findings. That assisted the researcher in framing certain suggestions which will aid in ensuring human rights for all the individuals. The recommendations have been organised after considering the positives and negatives arising from the research, with the need for changes in the human rights act. These suggestions have been enumerated through the salient points.
● An important characteristic of governmental bodies is to differentiate their roles and duties during uncertain periods like the pandemic. They should function through the state bodies and national bodies in a completely separate manner. It would ensure better collaboration and judicious use of responsibility during any crisis situation. This would affect human rights in a proper manner.
● The governmental intervention must address the issues concerning the right to privacy, along with the right to speech as it becomes problematic to provide the same under the present circumstances. This should give rise to newer laws allowing lesser flexibility to the populace without compromising the legal right. The government authorities can set up certain departments to address the related grievances from the citizens in the country.
● The social stance of society might change as a whole during the pandemic. However, considering social distancing could be a violation of human rights, and therefore require better changes in the norms to explain the issues to the aggrieved public. This would create transparency among both government authorities and the people, which in itself contributes as a human right.
● As a form of equality, the jobs must not differentiate between genders and ensure equality in pay scales. This would also apply for other religions who participate in the workflow of the country. The human rights activists must create better amendments to permit the equal practice of religion in the country. They must also see to it that gender discrimination seldom occurs in the country. Any violations of the aforementioned regulations must be compensated by equal wages in the long term.
6.4 Limitations and further Research directions
This research study also tried to identify several shortcomings in human rights acts. These involved the lesser impact of governmental agencies in shaping the human rights act as a whole. It included some important requirements, like working together in the form of national and state bodies and reducing the increasing concerns during the pandemic situation. This led to the conclusion that the overall responsibility in the current time period had increased for the government representatives. However, it was important for them to reduce the majority concerns around “right to privacy” with increased social distancing prevalent in the country.
A positive aspect of this research was its implementation of a decisive plan for considering the resources, costs, and other factors in drawing facts and research in order. It was truly confirmed at the end of the day, that by putting together a comprehensive study illustrating and analysing why ‘human rights prevention’ was necessary for the country, gave a fresher perspective to the research framework, furthermore the sample size comprised of people from different age groups, gender, and differentiated employment status justified its approach.
Chapter 7: Personal Reflection
There are various ways of personal reflection on an academic level. The pathways suggested by Klob and Gibbs are among these paths which supports an individual to ascertain meaning and sensibility from an already existing experiences. For my reflective section I will take the assistance of Gibb’s “Reflective Cycle”. I have chosen this model as it clearly suites the need of the assignment.
Stages of the reflective Cycle
Description: This entire assessment had required me to take notice of smaller details regarding the module contents and other extraneous materials which were required to complete this assessment properly. In addition I also had to take part in the primary data collection process which required me to make active engagement with the participants. This is something which I have barely done anyways. I also had to suggest a long line of academic materials to suite the best needs of the assignment requirements. The process of managing and assessing these tasks determined the success of the whole endeavour.
Feeling: I felt a genuine sense of wonder and interest towards the criticality of the process. I have always identified myself with someone who takes active participation in all form of collective activities. But I was also aware of the fact that sometime I can be hard to understand by people who are not familiar with me. I feared this might hinder the process of the survey and data collection process. Additionally there was the problem of COVID-19 pandemic which made the whole survey process to be done cautiously. I could not help but wonder how the whole process would have been had there been no pandemic to begin with.
Evaluation: I have done some subjective and objective evaluation from my part to understand the occurrences which might lead to a peaceful research process. The one element which I had noticed within me is that even ever I have faced any detrimental situation of any negative feedback I have managed to make myself motivated by looking at the greater goals and requirements. Objectively I have sensed this whole process needs equal contribution from the researchers as well as from the participants. The process of selecting the best possible individuals thus is of superlative importance.
Conclusion: To conclude I can assert that the entire assignment has been a monumental milestone on my academic experience so far. I have gathered the basic requirements which are crucial in making an authentic contribution towards the greater academic community. In summary the whole process have been constructive from a personal standpoint.
Action Plan: I intend to hone the experience and expertise I have gathered to make more prominent and sensible objectives in following or future projects. I also need to work on my oratory and communication skills so my addressal prowess can also increase. Moreover I feel an innate obligation towards the academic community for whom I feel the most profound gratitude and obligation. I also intent to make improvements to the statistical tools required for proper primary analysis.
George, D. and Mallery, P., 2016. IBM SPSS Statistics 23 Step By Step: A Simple Guide And Reference. 3rd ed. UK: Routledge, pp.1-67.
Etikan, I. and Bala, K., 2017. Developing questionnaire base on selection and designing. Biometrics & Biostatistics International Journal, 5(5).
Uemura, K., Ando, Y. and Matsuyama, Y., 2017. Utility of adaptive sample size designs and a review example. J Stat Sci Appl, 5(1-2), pp.1-15.
Hao, J., Liu, L., von Davier, A., Kyllonen, P. and Kitchen, C., 2016. Collaborative Problem Solving Skills versus Collaboration Outcomes: Findings from Statistical Analysis and Data Mining. In EDM (pp. 382-387). Available at <https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED592609.pdf#page=400> [Accessed on 27 May 2020]
Wu, H. and Leung, S., 2017. Can Likert Scales be Treated as Interval Scales?—A Simulation Study. Journal of Social Service Research, [online] 43(4), pp.527-532. Available at: <https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Huiping_Wu4/publication/317374302_Can_Likert_Scales_be_Treated_as_Interval_Scales-A_Simulation_Study/links/5a1b7de8a6fdcc50adec855a/Can-Likert-Scales-be-Treated-as-Interval-Scales-A-Simulation-Study.pdf> [Accessed 9 June 2020].
Appendix 1: Questionnaire
Protecting Human Rights
Cristina Elena Bercus
1. What is your gender?
2. What is your age range?
3. Do you live or work in London?
4. Optional: Do you identify with a particular race/religion/sexual identity or any other group?
5. Which of the following best describes your current situation?
a) Working (employee, self-employed)
b) Studying (including school, training, university)
c) I’m both studying and working
d) I’m neither working or studying
6. Are you currently involved (as a professional or volunteer) with any organisation whose mission is relevant to the protection of human rights? If yes, please share the name of the organisation and any brief details below.
7. Would you like to have a telephonic interview with us to tell us more about your experiences and views? If yes, please state your name and your telephone number for us to call you.
8. Other comments:
Appendix 2. ETHICAL ISSUES FORM
Section 1: Basic Details
Project title: PROTECTING HUMAN RIGHTS
Student name: Cristina Elena Bercus
Student ID number: D01192517
Programme: Research Project
School: DAVID GAME COLLEGE
Intended research start date: 23.05.2020
Intended research end date: 06.06.2020
Section 2: Project Summary
Kindly note down the deemed research methods that you propose to utilise as part of your project:
• Data Analysis:
Section 3: Participants
Kindly answer the following queries, providing full details where necessary.
Does your research work involve human participants? Yes.
How do you intend to recruit your participants (identified and approached)?
How will you inform your participants about what you are doing?
Word document and Handouts
How do you intend to obtain consent from participants? Do you plan to take written consent? How will inform the participants that they may withdraw their consent to participate at any time?
A self-declaration form is mandatory.
Studies involving questionnaires: Will participants be given the option of omitting questions they do not wish to answer? Yes
If No, please explain why below and ensure that you cover any ethical issues arising from this
Will you debrief participants at the end of their participation (i.e. give them a brief explanation of the study)? Yes
Will participants be given information about the findings of your study? (This could be a brief summary of your findings in general). Yes
Section 4: Data Storage and Security
Do you confirm that all personal data that you will collect in the course of the research work will be stored and processed abiding by the rules and regulations of the Data Protection Act (1998)
Who will be able to access the stored personal information’s?
During the research: The investigator and the unit tutor.
Where will the data be stored?
Will cellular devices such as the like of USB storage and laptops be used? Yes
If yes, please provide further details:
After the research: The data will be stored in both the hard and soft copy formats with additional backups for insurance of system failure.
Where will the data be stored?
How long will the data and records be kept for and in what format?
The data will be stored until further requirement or additions in word and pdf formats.
Will data be kept for use by other researchers? No
If yes, please provide further details:
Section 5: Ethical Issues
Are there any particular features of your proposed work which may raise ethical concerns? If so, please outline how you will deal with these:
It is important that you demonstrate your awareness of potential risks that may arise as a result of your research. Please consider/address all issues that may apply. Ethical concerns may include, but are not limited to, the following:
• Informed consent.
• Potentially vulnerable participants.
• Sensitive topics.
• Risks to participants and/or researchers.
• Disclosures/limits to confidentiality.
• Data storage and security, both during and after the research (including transfer, sharing, encryption, protection).
• Dissemination and use of your findings.
Section 6: Declaration
I have exhaustively studied and understood the institution’s Research and Ethics Policy and promise to abide by and follow the rules accordingly: Yes
I have discussed the ethical issues relating to my research with my Unit Tutor: Yes
I confirm that the above information is true and is correct to the best of my knowledge and in the aforementioned paragraphs I have thoroughly mentioned and declared all the possible ethical issues that are connected with and related to the proposed research work.
Name: Cristina Elena Bercus
Please submit your completed form as an appendix to your submitted research.